Surprising Things That Can Damage Your Liver

Sugar

Too much sugar isn’t just bad for your teeth. It can harm your liver, too. The organ uses one type of sugar, called fructose, to make fat. Too much refined sugar and high-fructose corn syrup causes a fatty buildup that can lead to liver disease. Some studies show that sugar can be as damaging to the liver as alcohol, even if you’re not overweight. It’s one more reason to limit foods with added sugars, such as soda, pastries, and candy.

Herbal Supplements

Even if the label says “natural,” it may not be OK for you. For instance, some people take an herb called kava kava for menopause symptoms or to help them relax. But studies show that it can keep the liver from working right. That can lead to hepatitis and liver failure. Some countries have banned or restricted the herb, but it’s still available in the U.S. You should always talk to your doctor before you take any herbs to make sure they’re safe.

Acetaminophen

You’ve got a sore back, or a headache, or a cold, and you reach for a pain reliever. Be sure to take the right amount! If you accidentally take too much of anything that has acetaminophen — for instance, a pill for your headache and something else for your cold, and both have acetaminophen in it — it can harm your liver. Check the dose and how much is OK to take in one day. Stick to those limits, and you should be fine.

Trans Fats

Trans fats are a man-made fat in some packaged foods and baked goods. (You’ll see them listed as “partially hydrogenated” ingredients). A diet high in trans fats makes you more likely to gain weight. That’s not good for your liver. Check the ingredients list. Even if it says “0” grams of trans fat, it may still have a small amount, and that adds up.

Mistakes Happen

A doctor or nurse gets nicked by a needle they’ve used on a patient. Or people injecting illegal drugs share a needle. The needle isn’t the problem. It’s what’s on it. Hepatitis C can spread through blood. Even if it only happened once, or you’re at high risk for other reasons (like if you have HIV or your mom had hepatitis C while pregnant with you), you should get tested. So should everyone born from 1945 through 1965.

Less Alcohol Than You May Think

You probably already know that drinking too much is bad for your liver. But you might not realize that “too much” can happen without you being an alcoholic or addicted to alcohol. It’s easy to drink more than you think. Many glasses can hold a lot more than one standard serving, which is 5 ounces of wine (that’s a little more than half a cup), 12 ounces of regular beer, or 1.5 ounces of liquor. If you drink, be sure to keep it moderate — that’s one drink a day for women and up to 2 per day for men.

Extra Pounds

The extra fat can build up in your liver cells and lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). As a result, your liver may swell. Over time, it can harden and scar liver tissue (doctors call this cirrhosis). You are more likely to get NAFLD if you are overweight or obese, middle-aged, or have diabetes. You may be able to turn things around. Diet and exercise can stop the disease.

Too Much Vitamin A From Supplements

Your body needs vitamin A, and it’s fine to get it from plants such as fresh fruits and vegetables, especially those that are red, orange, and yellow. But if you take supplements that have high doses of vitamin A, that can be a problem for your liver. Check with your doctor before you take any extra

Soft Drinks 

Research shows that people who drink a lot of soft drinks are more likely to have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies don’t prove that the drinks were the cause. But if you down a lot of sodas and have been meaning to cut back, this could be a good reason to switch what you sip.

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Arthritis Supplements

Many people with arthritis,  especially osteoarthritis,  use supplements in their diet to ease the pain of arthritis. Glucosamine and Chondroitin are the most well-known. Methyl sulfonylmethane (MSM) is another supplement used to ease the pain of arthritis, but it has not been through as much scientific testing.

It is important to check with your doctor before starting any new treatments. Your doctor can review the other medications you are taking and help you decide whether or not these arthritis supplements are right for you. In addition, always follow the instructions on the medication label. Do not take more of the supplements than is recommended.

What Are Glucosamine and Chondroitin?

Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are components of normal cartilage. In the body, they are the building blocks for cartilage and appear to stimulate the body to make more cartilage.

There are conflicting studies on glucosamine and chondroitin, some demonstrating a beneficial effect on osteoarthritis pain. Others, including the NIH-sponsored multicenter Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT), did not show benefit for the primary outcome of reducing pain. More recently another study also found that glucosamine did not slow down cartilage damage or reduce knee pain.

The supplements, which are available in pharmacies and health food stores without a prescription, are well-tolerated and appear to be safe. However, there are no long-term studies to confirm their long-term safety and effectiveness. Keep in mind that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates supplements, but treats them like food rather than drugs; supplement manufacturers are not required to prove their products are safe or effective before selling them in the marketplace.

Many physicians may still recommend a trial of glucosamine at this point, and if there is not apparent improvement by three months, it would be reasonable to stop glucosamine. Research is ongoing.

Which Brand of Arthritis Supplement Should I Use?

There are many different brands of glucosamine and chondroitin, which are usually sold together as one arthritis supplement. Again, there is no government monitoring to ensure the purity of these products.

In order to assure that you get a consistent dose of the supplements, stick with a reputable manufacturer; choose products sold by large and well-established companies. If you don’t recognize a brand name, ask about the company’s reputation, how long it has been in business.

Who Should Not Take These Arthritis Supplements?

People with diabetes should use caution when taking glucosamine because it may raise blood sugar. People taking blood-thinning medication (anticoagulants) should check with their doctors before taking glucosamine and chondroitin.

These arthritis supplements may also have a blood-thinning effect, so people taking these supplements in addition to an anticoagulant may have to have their blood tested more often. People who are allergic to shellfish also should consult their doctors before using glucosamine and chondroitin. Glucosamine is extracted from a substance in shellfish.

The effects of these supplements on a growing child or developing baby are not yet known. For that reason, glucosamine and chondroitin are not recommended for children, women who are pregnant, women who are nursing, and women who could become pregnant.

What Are the Side Effects of Glucosamine and Chondroitin?

These arthritis supplements are generally well-tolerated. However, side effects can occur. The most commonly reported side effects of glucosamine and chondroitin include:

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea or Constipation
  • Heartburn
  • Increased intestinal gas

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The Truth About Vitamin D

Vitamin D: Wonder Pill or Overkill?

Wouldn’t it be great if one vitamin could build stronger bones and protect against diabetes, multiple sclerosis, cancer, heart disease, and depression? Or even help you lose weight? Researchers have high hopes for vitamin D — which comes from our skin’s reaction to sunlight, a few foods, and supplements. Learn the facts in the slides ahead … and see who’s at risk for a “D” deficiency.

Vitamin D Boosts Bone Health

Vitamin D is critical for strong bones, from infancy into old age. It helps the body absorb calcium from food. In older adults, a daily dose of “D” and calcium helps to prevent fractures and brittle bones. Children need “D” to build strong bones and prevent rickets, a cause of bowed legs, knock knees, and weak bones. Adding the vitamin to milk in the 1930s helped to nearly eliminate rickets.

Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is more common far away from the sunny equator. For years, experts suspected a link between sunlight, vitamin D levels, and this autoimmune disorder that damages the nerves. One newer clue comes from a study of a rare gene defect that leads to low levels of vitamin D – and a higher risk of MS. Despite these links, there’s not enough evidence to recommend vitamin D for the prevention or treatment of MS.

Vitamin D and Diabetes

Some studies have shown a link between a low vitamin D level and type 1 and type 2 diabetes. So, can boosting your vitamin D levels help ward off the disease? There’s not enough proof for doctors to recommend taking this supplement to prevent diabetes. Excess body fat may play a role in type 2 diabetes and low levels of vitamin D.

Vitamin D and Weight Loss

Studies have shown that people who are obese often have low blood levels of vitamin D. Body fat traps vitamin D, making it less available to the body. It’s not clear whether obesity itself causes a low vitamin D level or if it’s the other way around. But one small study of dieters suggests that adding vitamin D to a calorie-restricted diet may help overweight people with low vitamin D levels lose weight more easily.

Low “D” and Depression

Vitamin D plays a role in brain development and function, and low levels of vitamin D have been found in patients with depression. But studies don’t show that Vitamin D supplementation will help reduce the symptoms of depression.  The best bet is to talk with your doctor about what might help reduce the symptoms of depression.

How Does Sun Give You Vitamin D?

Most people get some vitamin D from sunlight. When the sun shines on your bare skin, your body makes its own vitamin D. But you probably need more than that. Fair-skinned people might get enough in 5-10 minutes on a sunny day, a few times a week. But cloudy days, the low light of winter, and the use of sun block (important to avoid skin cancer and skin aging) all interfere. Older people and those with darker skin tones don’t make as much from sun exposure. Experts say it’s better to rely on food and supplements.

Dining With Vitamin D

Many of the foods we eat have no naturally occurring vitamin D. Fish such as salmon, swordfish, or mackerel is one big exception and can provide a healthy amount of vitamin D in one serving. Other fatty fish such as tuna and sardines have some “D,” but in much lower amounts. Small amounts are found in egg yolk, beef liver, and fortified foods like cereal and milk. Cheese and ice cream do not usually have added vitamin D.

Start Your Day With Vitamin D

Choose your breakfast foods wisely, and you can get a substantial amount of vitamin D. Most types of milk are fortified, including some soy milks. Orange juice, cereal, bread, and some yogurt brands also commonly have added vitamin D. Check the labels to see how much “D” you’re getting.

Vitamin D Supplements

Eating D-rich foods is the best way to get vitamin D. If you still need help getting enough, there are two kinds of supplements: D2 (ergocalciferol), which is the type found in food, and D3 (cholecalciferol), which is the type made from sunlight. They’re produced differently, but both can raise vitamin D levels in your blood. Most multivitamins have 400 IU of vitamin D. Check with your health care provider for the best supplements for your needs.

Are You Vitamin D Deficient?

Problems converting vitamin D from food or sunshine can set you up for a deficiency. Factors that increase your risk include:

  • Age 50 or older
  • Dark skin
  • A northern home
  • Overweight, obese, gastric bypass surgery
  • Milk allergy or lactose intolerance
  • Liver or digestive diseases, such as Crohn’s disease or celiac

Using sunscreen can interfere with getting vitamin D, but abandoning sunscreen can significantly increase your risk for skin cancer. So it’s worth looking for other sources of vitamin D in place of prolonged, unprotected exposure to the sun.

Symptoms of “D” Deficiency

Most people with low blood levels of vitamin D don’t notice any symptoms. A severe deficiency in adults can cause soft bones, called osteomalacia. The symptoms include bone pain and muscle weakness. In children, a severe deficiency can lead to rickets and symptoms of soft bones and skeletal problems. Rickets is rare in the United States.

Testing Your Vitamin D Level

There’s a simple blood test used to check your vitamin D level, called the 25-hydroxyvitamin D test. Current guidelines by the Institute of Medicine set a blood level of 20 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) as a goal for good bone health and overall health. However, some doctors say people should go higher, to about 30 ng/mL to get the full health benefits of vitamin D.

How Much Is Too Much Vitamin D?

Some researchers suggest taking far more vitamin D than the 600 IU daily guideline for healthy adults. But too much be dangerous. Very high doses of vitamin D can raise your blood calcium level, causing damage to blood vessels, heart, and kidneys. The Institute of Medicine sets the upper tolerable limit at 4,000 IU of vitamin D per day. You can’t get too much vitamin D from the sun. Your body simply stops making more. But sun exposure without sunscreen can raise your risk of skin cancer.

Drugs That Interact With Vitamin D

Some drugs cause your body to absorb less vitamin D. These include laxatives, steroids, and anti-seizure medicines. If you take digoxin, a heart medicine, too much vitamin D can raise the level of calcium in your blood and lead to an abnormal heart rhythm. It’s important to discuss your use of vitamin D supplements with your doctor or pharmacist.

Vitamin D and Colon Cancer

It’s too soon to make a strong case for vitamin D as an overall cancer-fighter. But newer studies suggest that people with higher levels of vitamin D in their blood may have a lower risk for colon cancer.

Vitamin D and Other Cancers

Headlines tout vitamin D as a way to prevent breast and prostate cancer. But researchers don’t yet have enough evidence to say that the benefits are real. And, vitamin D may boost the risk of pancreatic cancer. The VITAL Study — a Harvard university study — of vitamin D and omega-3 is following 20,000 volunteers to find answers. In the meantime, a healthy body weight, regular exercise, and the diet guidelines of the American Cancer Society may help prevent cancer.

Vitamin D and Heart Disease

Low levels of vitamin D have been linked to a greater risk of heart attack, stroke, and heart disease. Still, it’s not clear whether boosting vitamin D will reduce heart risks and how much vitamin D is needed. Very high levels of vitamin D in the blood can actually harm blood vessels and the heart by increasing the amount of calcium in the bloodstream.

A Factor in Dementia?

Older people are more likely to have vitamin D levels that are too low. Researchers found that older people with vitamin D deficiency performed poorly on tests of memory, attention, and reasoning compared to people with enough vitamin D in their blood. Still, better studies are needed to learn if vitamin D supplements could prevent dementia or slow mental decline.

 

Stroke Information & Resource Guide

stroke
A A stroke is a serious and sometimes life-threatening condition. It is a leading cause of disability and the fourth leading cause of death among Americans. Until recently, if you were to experience a stroke, supportive care was all that was available. But now, stroke management has progressed to a point where a stroke can be stopped in its path.There are treatments available that can prevent or limit disability caused by a stroke as well as saving many lives. The success of such treatments is dependent upon how much time has passed since the stroke symptoms appeared. Therefore, the early recognition of a stroke by the patient or their family is of the utmost importance. This article will attempt to give you the information you need to recognize a stroke and respond accordingly.

What is a Stroke?

The brain has blood vessels that are dedicated to providing each and every region with the oxygen and nutrients that it needs to survive and function. Over the years, plaque from cholesterol and other lipid substances starts to build up in the blood vessels and causes them to narrow. If that plaque ruptures and causes damage to the vessel wall, the body tries to heal it. Clot forming molecules will reach the site and clot off the vessel. Once the blood vessel is closed, there is no blood flow to the tissue beyond the blockage. Sometimes, the clot will dislodge, travel in the blood and block a smaller vessel downstream. Without oxygen and nutrition, the tissue beyond the blockage will begin to die.

The symptoms and size of a stroke will depend upon the location of the blood clot. Stroke due to such an underlying mechanism is referred to as ischemic. This is the predominant form of stroke. At least 8 out of every 10 cases of stroke are ischemic strokes.

Another less frequent type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel ruptures and causes bleeding into or around the brain. This type of stroke is called a hemorrhagic one. Although not impossible to treat, this type of stroke tends to be more serious and difficult to handle.

Review the healthcare provider algorithm for response to stroke which includes the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale and take our online quiz for stroke response.

Additional Resources

What is a Stroke?

Definition of Stroke

What is a Hemorrhagic Stroke?

Why Me? Causes of Stroke

Stroke risk is increased by the same factors that increase the risk of aheart attack: smoking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, sedentarism and high cholesterol all contribute to the risk of stroke. Anything that you can do to change these risk factors will decrease your chances of having a stroke. There can be a genetic component to stroke risk as well as drug related factors.

An important note is that the Hemorrhagic stroke can often appear without any kind of risk associated, as it is a stroke that can appear due to an aneurysm or congenital issues as well.

Stroke Prevention

Lifestyle Tips to Prevent Stroke

9 Ways to Prevent a Stroke

Recognizing a Stroke by Signs and Symptoms

Because the medical management of stroke varies depending on the length of time since symptoms first appeared, and due to the fact that this will affect prognosis, a prompt recognition of a stroke is extremely important.

Keep in mind that stroke symptoms usually start quite suddenly and get worse over time. You may be sitting at a table and suddenly be unable to hold your coffee cup or get your words out correctly. Signs and symptoms of stroke include sudden onset of weakness on one side of the body and slurred speech or dysarthria, meaning, the inability to make your words come out right. A sudden change in the way you walk or feeling that one leg is not “acting right” can be a sign of stroke. Some patients also notice changes in their ability to see. Loss of balance is another common sign of stroke. Patients who have bleeding around their brain may complain that “they have the worst headache of their life”.

A useful acronym to recognize and respond to stroke is FAST:

  • Face
    • Drooping of one side of the face. Ask the person to smile and note if it is uneven.
  • Arms
    • Weakness or numbness in one arm. Ask the person to lift both arms. Does one extremity drift downward or is the person unable to lift it?
  • Speech
    • Difficulty in speech, is it slurred? Ask the person to repeat a phrase and note any changes in speech.
  • Time
    • If any of these symptoms are present, it’s time to call 911 immediately. Also, take note of the time since symptoms onset, which will be required by doctors to decide on appropriate treatment.

In the case of an hemorrhagic stroke the symptoms appear in a more abrupt way and varies from the ischemic one, the headache is the first thing to appear, it consists on a very severe pain which makes the patient feel like “his head is gonna explode”, then the rest of the symptoms start to appear.

Nausea and vomiting are common along with dizziness and a very stiff neck and are accompanied by confusion and even seizures, this set of symptoms are called “meningeal syndrome” due to the inflammation of the meninges (a set of membranes that cover the brain and spinal chord), thanks to a severe and sudden hemorrhage in the brain.

It is important to remember though, that the only and best way to ascertain the type of stroke along with the adequate treatment for it, is through imaging studies, for example, a CT scan or an MRI, this last one uses magnets and radio waves in order to create pictures of the organs and structures of the body. This test can detect changes or damage to the brain tissue. All of this is done in the confines of a medical center, so it’s important to take note that we have to act fast in order for the adequate treatment to happen.

Warning Signs of Stroke

Signs and Symptoms of Stroke

Women and Stroke

Hemorrhagic Stroke overview

I’m Having a Stroke! What Should I Do?

It is imperative that you get help and get to a hospital AS SOON AS POSSIBLE following the onset of symptoms of stroke. Treatment for stroke is very time dependent. A clot-busting medication can be given to clear the clot from the vessel, but only if you are at the hospital within 3 hours (4.5 hours for some patients) of onset of symptoms.Call 911 IMMEDIATELY. Do not wait for relatives to arrive, do not wait while you pack clothing for the hospital or wait for your family to return a call. The amount of damage done by the stroke is subject to how long the blood vessel remains blocked. Keep in mind that TIME IS BRAIN. For every minute you delay getting medical attention, more brain tissue is being damaged.

If you are calling help for a friend or family member, after dialing 911, you should attempt to determine the time that symptoms began. If you arrived at your family member’s house and found them having symptoms, it may be advantageous to phone a neighbor that may have seen them. You are attempting to figure out the time that the patient was “last known well”. This could be a telephone conversation, a neighbor who saw them getting their mail earlier in the day or the report of someone who was with them when their symptoms began. This is important because clot-busting medication can only be given within a certain timeframe.

It is also important to note that in the case of the hemorrhagic stroke, since this type of stroke does not derive from pressures from a clot or a plaque, an utmost care must be taken if the patient was taking any form of clot bursting medication since these kinds of treatments generally worsen the stroke itself.

What should I do if I am having a Stroke?

Response to Stroke

What to Expect When the Ambulance Arrives

The Paramedics and EMTs will focus on two things: making sure that your vital signs are stable and transporting you quickly and efficiently to a stroke center that is capable of treating your stroke.

Don’t be surprised if EMS encourages you to go to a hospital other than the one that you would prefer. There are certain hospitals that are classified as Stroke Centers of different levels. Comprehensive stroke centers (usually the larger teaching hospitals) are capable of not only giving clot-busting medication but are also able to perform procedures quickly to remove the clot and restore your blood flow.

If you are transported to a hospital that is not a stroke center, valuable time will be wasted while they complete their assessment and diagnostic testing and then transfer you to an appropriate stroke center for treatment. Transporting you directly to the closest stroke center available can save precious time. Most EMS have protocols in place for this purpose.

Stroke Center Certification

Comprehensive Stroke Center

Locate a Stroke Center by Zip Code

What Treatments are Available for Stroke?

Treatments for ischemic stroke are described here, which is the most common form of stroke. At the end of this section, you will find links to articles on stroke management which include treatment of hemorrhagic stroke. Remember, for any type of emergency treatment, the earlier it’s begun, the better the results.

Clot-Busting Medication: tPA is a clot-busting medication that has been in use for many years for stroke, heart attack, and pulmonary embolism (clots in the blood vessels of the lungs). It is given intravenously and dissolves the clot to restore blood flow. It is, however, not without its complications: tPA can cause bleeding in the brain and other parts of the body. So, you will be assessed to make sure that you are not at high risk of bleeding. For example, if you recently had a major injury, surgery or internal bleeding, it would be too dangerous to administer a clot-busting medication for your stroke. Clot-busting medication cannot be administered if more than 3 hours (4.5 hours in some cases) have elapsed since symptom onset. After such time the risks outweigh benefits. That is why it is important to know when symptoms began. The time that your symptoms began is the time when the blood vessel became occluded.

Percutaneous Interventions: Just like with a heart attack there are procedures to place a catheter directly into a vessel that feeds the brain and remove the clot that is blocking it. A catheter is placed through the groin and threaded up to the blood vessel that has been blocked. The clot can then be dissolved by directly delivering clot-busting medication, or it can be physically removed with the help of a tiny device at the end of the catheter.

The treatment of an hemorrhagic stroke varies from the ischemic one. Due to the fact that an hemorrhagic stroke appears more suddenly and even without previous risks associated (Hypertension in the case of an ischemic stroke) the time to act when presented with an hemorrhagic stroke must be faster.

Anticonvulsivants Due to the high risk of seizures related to an hemorrhagic stroke, different forms of anticonvulsivants are administered, which can then be extended for weeks or even months until the risk is lowered

Antihypertensive agents and diuretics Since most hemorrhagic strokes derive from a sudden high blood pressure, a drug that lowers said blood pressure needs to be administered along with another one that helps the intracranial/meningeal pressure, this kind of treatment is often given with care due to the risks associated with them and with the stroke itself.

Surgical procedures The main objective of a surgical procedure on an hemorrhagic stroke is to drain the blood from the meninges, alleviating the pressure done on said areas and helping with the onset of symptoms derived from it .

 

How to protect your skin from the sun?

 One bad sunburn in childhood raises your skin cancer risk, True

Kids are at high risk in the sun because it’s easier for them to get sunburned. A baby’s skin can burn in less than 10 minutes. Kids also tend to spend a lot of time outside and don’t put sunscreen on themselves. Keep babies younger than 6 months out of the sun and protected by hats and clothes. Their thin skin is too young for sunscreen.

People with darker skin can’t get sunburns or skin cancer, False

Everybody can burn. People of color are often diagnosed with skin cancer at later stages because of a myth that only those with lighter skin can develop it

Skin cancer only grows on places that have been exposed to the sun, False

Skin cancers can grow anywhere on the body. There is a strong link between sun exposure and the two most common non-melanoma skin cancers, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. These mostly grow on the face, ears, and hands

What’s so bad about indoor tanning early in life?

The risk of melanoma is a huge 75% higher in people who started to use tanning beds before age 25. Tanning salons use both UVA and UVB rays — the same as the sun.

Any kind of tan is damaged skin. That speeds skin aging, as well as raising the risk of cancer.

 A base tan can help protect your skin from the sun, False

There’s no such thing as a safe tan. If you spend any time in the sun, you expose your skin to damaging UV rays. Tanned skin is damaged skin. It raises your risk for skin cancer and speeds up your skin’s aging process

Makeup can help protect your skin from the sun, True

Look for moisturizers, eye creams, foundations, and lipsticks that have SPF. Powder can help keep them in place. Skip shiny, high-gloss lipsticks, which can attract UV rays to your lips. If you want the wet look, apply a colored lipstick first, and then top with gloss

Window glass protects your skin from all harmful UV rays, False

UVB rays can’t get through glass, but UVA rays can. That’s why you should use a broad-spectrum, water-resistant sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30 every day, even when you’re going to be inside

Dark clothes protect you from the sun better than light ones, True

UV rays tend to pass through lighter-colored fabrics more easily. To block the most, wear deep blue and black or bright solids like orange and red. Tight weaves offer more protection than loose ones. If you can see light through the fabric when you hold it up, the sun’s damaging rays can hit your skin. Some clothes have UPF (UV protection factor) ratings; the higher the better

Dark sunglasses block more UV rays than light lenses, False

Both can do the job. Look for labels that say “Meets ANSI UV Requirements” or “UV absorption up to 400 nm.”  That means the glasses will block 99% of UV rays, compared with about 70% for most cosmetic glasses.

Sunglasses are key, because up to 1 in 10 skin cancers strike the eyelid area. Sun can also raise the risk of cataracts, macular degeneration, sunburn of the cornea (keratitis), and cancers of the eye

 Which drugs can make you burn more easily in the sun?

Like naproxen, other pain relievers can also make you more sun-sensitive. So can tricyclic antidepressants, sulfonylureas for diabetes, or tetracycline, sulfa drugs, and many other antibiotics. When you get a new prescription, ask your doctor if it can make you more sun-sensitive. And ask about any current drugs before you head on a sunny vacation

 Melanoma — the most deadly skin cancer — most often occurs where?

Most skin cancers strike the most exposed parts of the body, such as the face, ears, neck, forearms, and hands. Melanoma is different. It’s often seen on the upper back for men and the lower legs and upper back for women. That’s why it’s important to wear sunscreen all over your body.

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